问题陈述 (statement of the problem) 就是声明研究工作要处理的问题。问题陈述简短说明研究问题：这个研究要处理的问题是什么？
撰写问题陈述会帮助你清楚地找出你要提案的研究项目的用途。问题陈述也经常会被当作最终研究计划中的前言 (introductory) 章节，迅速将读者的注意力带到你提案的研究项目要处理的议题上，提供读者简洁的提案计划陈述。
第一部分：According to the XY university mission statement, the university seeks to provide students with a safe, healthy learning environment. Dormitories are one important aspect of that learning environment, since 55% of XY students live in campus dorms and most of these students spend a significant amount of time working in their dorm rooms.
第二部分：Students living in dorms A B C, and D currently do not have air conditioning units, and during the hot seasons, it is common for room temperatures to exceed 80 degrees F. Many students report that they are unable to do homework in their dorm rooms. Others report having problems sleeping because of the humidity and temperature. The rooms are not only unhealthy, but they inhibit student productivity and academic achievement.
第三部分：In response to this problem, our study proposes to investigate several options for making the dorms more hospitable. We plan to carry out an all-inclusive participatory investigation into options for purchasing air conditioners (university-funded; student-subsidized) and different types of air conditioning systems. We will also consider less expensive ways to mitigate some or all of the problems noted above (such as creating climate-controlled dorm lounges and equipping them with better study areas and computing space).
第三步：利用转折语 but、however、unfortunately 或 in spite of 来连接第一步和第二步的内容。
The government of Kenya has a goal to industrialize the nation by the year 2030 (quote). In this regard it has encouraged growth-oriented micro and small enterprises (MSEs) that should graduate into medium and large enterprises capable of contributing to the industrialization goal. There are several sessional papers (quote/cite) that contain specific measures to encourage and support MSEs.
Despite the said government efforts, there is slow growth of micro into small enterprises and even slower growth of small into medium scale enterprises (quote, show statistics). The government has officially acknowledged that there exists a “missing middle” in Kenya meaning that there is a gap between small and large enterprises in the country (cite, quote).
Should the “missing middle” gap persist, the industrialization goal may be difficult to achieve. A need therefore arises to investigate why there is a persistent “missing middle” despite government efforts.
In order to accomplish their missions, public universities need motivated workforces.
There are, however, frequent and severe disciplinary actions, absenteeism, as well as various forms of unrest in public universities which affect the accomplishment of the set missions. Our preliminary investigation reveals that both non-management and management staff are under motivated.
Without effective motivational packages and procedures, the said vices are likely to continue and retard the achievement of the universities’ missions.
Thus, there is a need to examine the public universities’ motivation systems and procedures, which is the aim of the proposed research.
The Ministry of Youth is dedicated to allocating enterprise development funds to both the youth and women. These funds are made available in order to start entrepreneurial ventures that create and expand employment. (Provide relevant statistics and quote)
One of the main focuses of the ministry is consistency. Unfortunately, consistency in allocating funds to the next generation of recipients requires prior knowledge of previous allocations and established practices. The current continuous disbursement method does not allow for adequate analysis of previous disbursements before a current disbursement is done.
Continuing with this current disbursement method prevents consistency and causes decisions to become grossly political, which in turn inhibits the achievement of the goals of the funds. Developing a more informed disbursement system could help better implement the consistency focus of the ministry and at the same time help the ministry better monitor and evaluate its funds.
This proposed research aspires to explore options for a new funds disbursement system that would focus on consistency. To do this, the researcher will carry out a full stakeholder analysis and use it to propose appropriate policy interventions.
There is a problem in ______________________(e.g. organization or situation where problem is occurring). Despite ___________________________(efforts to prevent or deter), _____________________(something undesirable or unexpected) is occurring (provide evidence). This problem has negatively affected_____________(victims of the problem) because_____________________________. A possible cause of this problem is ___________________________. Perhaps a study which investigates_________________ by a ___________(paradigm/method) could help resolve the situation.
An established trend in the small business start-up financing in Kenya is to establish funds. Some of these funds include the youth fund and women fund. These funds have helped improve the rate of start-ups in the country. However, after the start-up stage, the ventures start developing problems. First, they face problems in management which lead to a marketing problem and eventually to stagnation and early exit.
A study by the Institute of Development Studies (RoK, 2004) revealed that only 38% of the businesses are expanding while 58% have not added workers. According to the survey, more enterprises are likely to close in their first three years of operation. Four years later the same institute conducted another study in Central Kenya. This study revealed that 57% of small businesses are in stagnation with only 33% of them showing some level of growth.
In our current project, we propose to examine factors that have an impact on small business sustainability. We will employ both qualitative and quantitative approaches to gather both primary and secondary data and information with the objective of determining success factors for the growth of small business in Kenya.
Specifically, we shall employ the product life cycle (PLC) model to identify the needs of a small business at the various stages of the PLC.
1. RoK, (2008). Economic Survey. Nairobi, Kenya. Government Printer.
2. Nyaga C.N. (2009). Non-financial constraints hindering growth of SMEs in Kenya: The case of plastic manufacturing companies in industrial area in Nairobi county. (A masters research thesis, University of Nairobi).
3. Nyagah C.N. (2013). Non-financial constraints hindering growth of SME’S in Kenya: the case of plastic manufacturing companies in industrial area in Nairobi County (Doctoral dissertation).
【本文改编自 Mukmik consultants 网站发表的文章 Is it problem statement or statement of the problem? ，经作者授权转载。】